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In the Logos edition, this volume is enhanced by amazing functionality. Important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a wealth of other resources in your digital library. Take the discussion with you using tablet and mobile apps. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.

John Witte Jr. Logos 8. Courses What is Logos Mobile Ed? This second edition updates and expands each chapter and the bibliography. It also includes three new chapters on classical, biblical, and patristic sources. John Witte Jr. Although handfastings vary for each Wiccan they often involve honoring Wiccan gods. Sex is considered a pious and sacred activity.

Marriages are correlated with better outcomes for the couple and their children, including higher income for men, better health and lower mortality. Part of these effects is due to the fact that those with better expectations get married more often. According to a systematic review on research literature, a significant part of the effect seems to be due to a true causal effect.

The reason may be that marriages make particularly men become more future-oriented and take an economic and other responsibility of the family. The studies eliminate the effect of selectivity in numerous ways. However, much of the research is of low quality in this sense.

On the other hand, the causal effect might be even higher if money, working skills and parenting practises are endogenous. Married men have less drug abuse and alcohol use and are more often at home during nights. Marriage, like other close relationships, exerts considerable influence on health. Social ties provide people with a sense of identity, purpose, belonging, and support.

The health-protective effect of marriage is stronger for men than women.


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Women's health is more strongly impacted than men's by marital conflict or satisfaction, such that unhappily married women do not enjoy better health relative to their single counterparts. In most societies, the death of one of the partners terminates the marriage, and in monogamous societies this allows the other partner to remarry, though sometimes after a waiting or mourning period. In some societies, a marriage can be annulled , when an authority declares that a marriage never happened.

Jurisdictions often have provisions for void marriages or voidable marriages.

A marriage may also be terminated through divorce. Countries that have relatively recently legalized divorce are Italy , Portugal , Brazil , Spain , Argentina , Paraguay , Colombia , Ireland , Chile and Malta As of , the Philippines and the Vatican City are the only jurisdictions which do not allow divorce this is currently under discussion in Philippines.

Sacraments: Marriage

Laws concerning divorce and the ease with which a divorce can be obtained vary widely around the world. After a divorce or an annulment, the people concerned are free to remarry or marry. A statutory right of two married partners to mutually consent to divorce was enacted in western nations in the midth century. In the United States no-fault divorce was first enacted in California in and the final state to legalize it was New York in The history of marriage is often considered under History of the family or legal history.

Many cultures have legends concerning the origins of marriage. The way in which a marriage is conducted and its rules and ramifications has changed over time, as has the institution itself, depending on the culture or demographic of the time. According to ancient Hebrew tradition, a wife was seen as being property of high value and was, therefore, usually, carefully looked after. The husband, too, is indirectly implied to have some responsibilities to his wife.

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The Covenant Code orders "If he take him another; her food, her clothing, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish or lessen ". And the term diminish, which means to lessen, shows the man must treat her as if he was not married to another. As a polygynous society, the Israelites did not have any laws that imposed marital fidelity on men. The literary prophets indicate that adultery was a frequent occurrence, despite their strong protests against it, [] [] [] [] and these legal strictnesses.

In ancient Greece , no specific civil ceremony was required for the creation of a heterosexual marriage — only mutual agreement and the fact that the couple must regard each other as husband and wife accordingly. It has been suggested that these ages made sense for the Greeks because men were generally done with military service or financially established by their late 20s, and marrying a teenage girl ensured ample time for her to bear children, as life expectancies were significantly lower.

There were several types of marriages in ancient Roman society. The traditional "conventional" form called conventio in manum required a ceremony with witnesses and was also dissolved with a ceremony. She now was subject to the authority of her husband. In this arrangement, the wife remained a member of her original family; she stayed under the authority of her father, kept her family rights of inheritance with her old family and did not gain any with the new family.

Among ancient Germanic tribes, the bride and groom were roughly the same age and generally older than their Roman counterparts, at least according to Tacitus :. The youths partake late of the pleasures of love, and hence pass the age of puberty unexhausted: nor are the virgins hurried into marriage; the same maturity, the same full growth is required: the sexes unite equally matched and robust; and the children inherit the vigor of their parents.

Where Aristotle had set the prime of life at 37 years for men and 18 for women, the Visigothic Code of law in the 7th century placed the prime of life at 20 years for both men and women, after which both presumably married. Tacitus states that ancient Germanic brides were on average about 20 and were roughly the same age as their husbands.

In addition, Anglo-Saxon women, like those of other Germanic tribes, are marked as women from the age of 12 and older, based on archaeological finds, implying that the age of marriage coincided with puberty. From the early Christian era 30 to CE , marriage was thought of as primarily a private matter, with no uniform religious or other ceremony being required.

In 12th-century Europe, women took the surname of their husbands and starting in the second half of the 16th century parental consent along with the church's consent was required for marriage. With few local exceptions, until , Christian marriages in Europe were by mutual consent, declaration of intention to marry and upon the subsequent physical union of the parties. In a wedding took place in Zufia, Navarre , between Diego de Zufia and Mari-Miguel following the custom as it was in the realm since the Middle Ages, but the man denounced the marriage on the grounds that its validity was conditioned to "riding" her " si te cabalgo, lo cual dixo de bascuence The tribunal of the kingdom rejected the husband's claim, validating the wedding, but the husband appealed to the tribunal in Zaragoza , and this institution annulled the marriage.

In the Council of Trent , twenty-fourth session, required that a valid marriage must be performed by a priest before two witnesses. One of the functions of churches from the Middle Ages was to register marriages, which was not obligatory. There was no state involvement in marriage and personal status, with these issues being adjudicated in ecclesiastical courts. During the Middle Ages marriages were arranged, sometimes as early as birth, and these early pledges to marry were often used to ensure treaties between different royal families, nobles, and heirs of fiefdoms.

The church resisted these imposed unions, and increased the number of causes for nullification of these arrangements. In Medieval Western Europe , later marriage and higher rates of definitive celibacy the so-called "European marriage pattern" helped to constrain patriarchy at its most extreme level. For example, Medieval England saw marriage age as variable depending on economic circumstances, with couples delaying marriage until the early twenties when times were bad and falling to the late teens after the Black Death , when there were labor shortages; [] by appearances, marriage of adolescents was not the norm in England.

The average age of marriage for most of Northwestern Europe from to was around 25 years of age ; [] [] [] as the Church dictated that both parties had to be at least 21 years of age to marry without the consent of their parents, the bride and groom were roughly the same age, with most brides in their early twenties and most grooms two or three years older, [] and a substantial number of women married for the first time in their thirties and forties, particularly in urban areas, [] with the average age at first marriage rising and falling as circumstances dictated.

In better times, more people could afford to marry earlier and thus fertility rose and conversely marriages were delayed or forgone when times were bad, thus restricting family size; [] after the Black Death , the greater availability of profitable jobs allowed more people to marry young and have more children, [] but the stabilization of the population in the 16th century meant fewer job opportunities and thus more people delaying marriages.

Key Features

The age of marriage was not absolute, however, as child marriages occurred throughout the Middle Ages and later, with just some of them including:. As part of the Protestant Reformation , the role of recording marriages and setting the rules for marriage passed to the state, reflecting Martin Luther 's view that marriage was a "worldly thing". In England, under the Anglican Church, marriage by consent and cohabitation was valid until the passage of Lord Hardwicke's Act in This act instituted certain requirements for marriage, including the performance of a religious ceremony observed by witnesses.

As part of the Counter-Reformation , in the Council of Trent decreed that a Roman Catholic marriage would be recognized only if the marriage ceremony was officiated by a priest with two witnesses. The Council also authorized a Catechism , issued in , which defined marriage as "The conjugal union of man and woman, contracted between two qualified persons, which obliges them to live together throughout life.


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  • In the early modern period , John Calvin and his Protestant colleagues reformulated Christian marriage by enacting the Marriage Ordinance of Geneva, which imposed "The dual requirements of state registration and church consecration to constitute marriage" [] for recognition. In England and Wales , Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act required a formal ceremony of marriage, thereby curtailing the practice of Fleet Marriage , an irregular or a clandestine marriage.

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    From the s until the Marriage Act of as many as , clandestine marriages were performed at Fleet Prison alone. The Act did not apply to Jewish marriages or those of Quakers, whose marriages continued to be governed by their own customs. In England and Wales, since , civil marriages have been recognized as a legal alternative to church marriages under the Marriage Act In Germany, civil marriages were recognized in This law permitted a declaration of the marriage before an official clerk of the civil administration, when both spouses affirm their will to marry, to constitute a legally recognized valid and effective marriage, and allowed an optional private clerical marriage ceremony.

    In contemporary English common law , a marriage is a voluntary contract by a man and a woman, in which by agreement they choose to become husband and wife. In ancient Chinese society, people of the same surname are supposed to consult with their family trees prior to marriage to reduce the potential risk of unintentional incest. Marrying one's maternal relatives was generally not thought of as incest.

    From Sacrament to Contract: Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition

    Families sometimes intermarried from one generation to another. Over time, Chinese people became more geographically mobile. Individuals remained members of their biological families. When a couple died, the husband and the wife were buried separately in the respective clan's graveyard. In a maternal marriage a male would become a son-in-law who lived in the wife's home. The New Marriage Law of radically changed Chinese heterosexual marriage traditions, enforcing monogamy , equality of men and women, and choice in marriage; arranged marriages were the most common type of marriage in China until then.

    Starting October , it became legal to marry or divorce without authorization from the couple's work units. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.